Darlingtonia, Summer 2000
Darlingtonia logo Darlingtonia, Summer 2000
          selections from the printed edition

Waking Up To Weed Woes, by Andrea Pickart

Our chapter is spearheading the upcoming "Invasive Weed Awareness Week" on August 20-27. The Board of Supervisors will be issuing a proclamation, sponsored by John Woolley, that includes the following pertinent facts:

- Invasive weeds are plants that have been introduced into an environment in which they did not evolve and have no natural enemies to limit their reproduction and spread;

- Invasive weeds affect both agricultural and natural systems, where they produce a significant change in terms of composition, structure, or ecosystem function;

- Problems caused by invasive weeds have increased dramatically in recent decades, posing a serious threat to production of food and fiber for humans, such that the total economic impact on the U.S. economy exceeds $13 billion per year;

- Weeds invading natural areas are the second most important threat to biodiversity;

- Human induced biological invasions are occurring on a global scale and are beginning to blur the regional distinctiveness of the earth's biota, which developed over the past 180 million years; and

- Preventing the spread of invasive weeds in the United States is a monumental task that depends on public awareness, support, and participation.

The week of events is a truly collaborative effort, with planning and participation by CNPS, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Land Management, Friends of the Dunes, HSU Natural History Museum, U.S. Forest Service, City of Arcata, Humboldt County Public Works Dept., Redwood National Park, U.C. Cooperative Extension, Manila Community Services District, and AmeriCorps. All of these entities spend scarce resources on battling invasive plants.

There will be lots of informative and fun activities throughout the week. Before the week even begins, we will have a promotional booth at the Humboldt County Fair. This booth will emphasize the weed problems encountered by ranchers, many of whom visit the fair. The Sunday kick-off event will be held at the Arcata Marsh Interpretive Center from 10 am to 2 pm, and will feature interactive booths, a field trip to view invasive species at the Arcata Marsh, videos, displays, and a kid's event. Work parties are scheduled throughout the week, some during the day and some in the evening, at various locations including Clam Beach, Freshwater Spit, Arcata Marsh and Forest, Manila Dunes, and Manila Community Park. Then, on Saturday, we will wrap up the week's event with another activity day at the HSU Natural History Museum. This day will appeal to both adults and kids, with the return of the popular "Alien Invaders" skit, a slide show geared to adults, informational booths, a display highlighting the weeks workdays, and hopefully, an ivy bash on the museum grounds.

We are still looking for help with the week. If you'd like to get involved please call Andrea at 822-6378 or email andrea_pickart@fws.gov.

pampas grass
pampas grass
TOP Ed. note: The following article supersedes the version that appeared in the mailed issue.

A Vegetative Key To Ribes Species Of Humboldt County, by Jennifer Kalt

The genus Ribes includes over 120 species worldwide. Thirty species are native to California, making it the third most diverse group of flowering shrubs in the state. Ribes tend to flower early in the spring, shortly after snowmelt at high elevations. Although they bloom profusely, the flowering period can be fairly brief (as little as 3 weeks in extreme cases). The early, profuse crops of flowers make Ribes nectar and pollen important food sources for pollinators, which include bumblebees, solitary bees, syrphid flies, hoverflies, hummingbirds, butterflies, and moths.

But the early, short flowering period makes identification of Ribes species difficult, since most keys use floral traits almost exclusively. Most of us are still sitting by our woodstoves while the Ribes are blooming, and then by the time we want to identify them, the flowers are long gone. If you can't get out in the field early enough, try this vegetative key to Ribes of Humboldt County.

See the Jepson Manual for additional information. Thanks to Michael Mesler and John Sawyer for their helpful comments, which improved this key tremendously. Please send your comments to JenKalt@cs.com. I must point out that the gooseberries occasionally hybridize, especially R. lobbii and R. roezlii. If both of these species are present, especially in a heavily disturbed habitat, hybrids are probably present, too.

How do you know it's a Ribes?

* Alternate, palmately lobed leaves;

* Fruit a true berry (fleshy, indehiscent, and many-seeded);

* Ovary inferior (wilted flowers are often visible on the distal ends of the fruits);

* Generally glandular and thus often have fragrant foliage;

* Many species (about half) have spines at the nodes.

A Vegetative Key to Ribes species of Humboldt County
1. Prickles and/or spines present ("gooseberries") ........... 2

1' Prickles and spines absent ("currants") ................... 7

2. Leaves glabrous or with very short, non-glandular hairs
	...................................................... 3

2' Leaves with glandular hairs................................ 5

3. Leaves with short hairs, upper surface shiny 12-25 mm;
	nodal spines 1-3; forests and forest openings,
	150-2300 m .............. _R. roezlii var. cruentum_

3' Leaves glabrous ........................................... 4

4. Stem arched or creeping; leaves 20-60 mm; nodal spines 0-3; 
	coastal bluffs, streamsides, forest edges,
	< 650 m ................. _R. divaricatum var.pubiflorum_

4' Stem erect; leaves 25-35 mm; nodal spines 3; mesic forest 
	understory, 1200-2100 m . _R. marshallii_*

5. Dense internodal prickles (often absent on older stems); 
	fruits with prickles; forest openings < 300 m
	......................... _R. menziesii_

5' Internodes lacking prickles ............................... 6

6. Stem erect; glandular hairs on internodes and fruits 
	(fruits lacking prickles); forest openings 700-2000 m
	......................... _R. lobbii_

6' Stem trailing, rooting at nodes; internodes with glandular 
	hairs; fruits with prickles and hairs; forest openings, 
	meadows 1000-2600 m ..... _R. binominatum_

7. Stems spreading or decumbent; leaves and internodes with 
	long glandular hairs; leaves 5-10 cm, upper surface 
	dark green; forest openings < 300 m
	......................... _R. laxiflorum_**

7' Stems erect; no long glandular hairs ...................... 8

8. Leaves deeply 5-7 lobed, upper surface shiny, lower surface 
	with sessile yellow glands; infl. erect; streamsides 
	< 1400 m ................ _R. bracteosum_

8' Leaf undersides aprsely hairy to white tomentose; infl. pendent; 
	forest openings 2200 m .. _R. sanguineum_
	(see Mesler and Sawyer for key to varieties)

*  CNPS List 4; endangered in Oregon
** List 4 in 5th edition of CNPS Inventory 

Vegetation on the Way to the South Fork of the Trinity, by John Sawyer

A dozen CNPSers met with thoughts of sun and plants for a day of seeing some of northern Californiaís vegetation types. The day started out in fog that soon covered the cars at Lord Ellis Summit. A stop to view stands of Oregon white oak (Quercus garryana), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), and grasses along State Route 299 gave the group an introduction to the California Native Plant Societyís vegetation classification. One that describes the stateís major types of grasslands, shrublands, forests, and woodlands based on species presence and dominance. As we enjoyed the view, those assembled got a taste of the special way that vegetation ecologists view the world, along with of their special jargon. With that done, the group was off over the hill to the east fork of Willow Creek.

We were welcomed by a shrub of minerís dogwood (Cornus sessile) in full bloom, along with California toothwort (Cardamine californica), snow queen (Synthyris reniformis), whitlow-grass (Draba verna), wood saxifrage (Saxifraga mertensiana), and other early spring herbs. But what of the vegetation? All assembled in a grove of leafless trees growing along the creek. All judged the area to be a homogeneous stand that was dominated by red alder (Alnus rubra), but also having some bigleaf maple (Acer macrocarpa) and Douglas-fir trees in the canopy. Out came the handy manual, and the stand was keyed to Red alder series. The slopes of this creek are covered with old growth stands of Douglas-fir - tanoak forest.

On to the south fork of the Trinity River south of Salyer. Here we had lunch in an Oregon white oak woodland along with wedgeleaf ceanothus (Ceanothus cuneatus), blue dicks (Dichelostemma capitatum), baby blue-eyes (Nemophila menziesii), canyon nemophila (Nemophila heterophylla), fawn-lily (Erythronium californica), shooting star (Dodecatheon hendersonii), and pink plectritis (Plectritis congesta).

As we continued the woodland changed into a Douglas- fir - tanoak forest, then into a tanoak forest and finally into Douglas-fir - canyon live forest before the group turned around. The complete trip to the Hellís Half Acre will have to wait to next spring. On the way back to the cars was a time for us to work on fern ID. We found bracken (Pteridium aquilinum), fragile fern (Cystopteris fragilis), goldback fern (Pentagramma triangularis), narrowleaf sword fern (Polystichum imbricans), polypody (Polypodium californica), western chain fern (Woodwardia fimbriata), and wood fern (Dryopteris expansa).


Fireweed, by Rosemary Bauman

Fireweed. The very name invokes fall forest fires, mountains ablaze in fiery fury. Actually, thatís not too far from the truth, as fireweed is an early recolonizer after the blaze.

Known scientifically as Epilobium angustifolium, fireweedís showy four-petaled pink flowers grace our roads and disturbed mountainsides in midsummer. Lanceolate leaves start young with purple tinges, turning to green as the plant matures. A member of the Evening Primrose family, its seed are borne on feathery parachutes. Fireweed also spreads with tenacious perennial stems.

The young plant is an excellent potherb, suitable for salads. The whole plant has been used by native people to bathe invalids, and an infusion from the root is useful for sore throats. The root may be steeped to tea, and treats coughing as well as hemorrhoids. Itís astringent, antiseptic qualities make it useful for application of minor cuts and abrasions, and the flowers have been rubbed into animal hides to repel water. The seed wool can be used to fill out wool for carding. Currently, fireweed is used and taken to treat candidiasis, and in other countries for beer and ale making.

This plant is not endangered, and due to its aggressive colonizing habits into disturbed habitats, is ensured a long existence.


The Rare And Uncommon Plants Of Humboldt County, by Clare Golec

There are approximately 6,300 native flowering plants, gymnosperms, ferns and fern allies in California, more than the entire northeastern United States and adjacent Canada (an area ten times larger than California). This gives California the largest state flora in the nation (in species, the state of Texas has more genera and families). The degree of endemism (plants restricted by locality or habitat) within the California Floristic Province is over 30% and most of the endemics are rare or uncommon plants.

The California Native Plant Society's (CNPS), Inventory of Rare and Endangered Vascular Plants of California was first published in 1974 and has been updated periodically since then, the last being 1994. The current 2000 edition represents a comprehensive inventory of the rare, endangered, threatened plants and uncommon vascular plants of California. The CNPS inventory is recognized by many agencies, such as California Department of Fish and Game. The CNPS inventory is a summarization of material contributed and reviewed by professional and amateur botanist throughout the state of California. The CNPS inventory serves to assemble, evaluate, update and distribute this information. The July 2000 version of the inventory is now only available by electronic format but will be available in print soon (the electronic format is updated more frequently then the published inventory).

The vascular plants within the CNPS inventory are categorized into one of five lists, these are the following: "List 1A", plants presumed extinct in California, "List 1B", plants rare, threatened or endangered in California and elsewhere, "List 2", plants rare, threatened or endangered in California but more common elsewhere, "List 3", plants about which we need more information, a review list and "List 4", plants of limited distribution (uncommon), a watch list.

There are a total of 142 listed plants for Humboldt County, 0 List 1A, 35 List 1B, 32 List 2, 4 List 3 and 62 List 4, for more detail on each species one may refer to the CNPS inventory. Any information on these species is requested and appreciated by the California Native Plant Society. The following list represents all of the current CNPS listed plants for Humboldt County (July 6, 2000)

Cnps Listed Plants Of Humboldt County


1. Abronia umbellata ssp. breviflora
	pink sand-verbena
2. Arctostaphylos canescens ssp.
	Sonoma manzanita
3. Astragalus agnicidus
	Humboldt milk-vetch
4. Astragalus pycnostachyus var.
	pycnostachyus coastal
	marsh milk-vetch
5. Bensoniella oregona 
6. Calamagrostis bolanderi
	Bolander's reed grass
7. Carex saliniformis 
	deceiving sedge
8. Castilleja ambigua ssp.
	Humboldt Bay owl's-clover
9. Castilleja mendocinensis
	coast Indian paintbrush
10. Clarkia amoena ssp. whitneyi
	Whitney's farewell-to-spring
11. Collinsia corymbosa
	round-headed chinese houses
12. Cordylanthus maritimus ssp.
	palustris Point Reyes bird's-beak
13. Epilobium oreganum
	Oregon fireweed
14. Erigeron supplex 
	supple daisy
15. Erysimum menziesii ssp. eurekense
	Humboldt Bay wallflower
16. Erythronium howellii
	Howell's fawn lily
17. Gilia capitata ssp. pacifica
	Pacific gilia
18. Gilia millefoliata dark-eyed gilia
19. Hesperolinon adenophyllum
	glandular western flax
20. Lathyrus biflorus
	two-flowered pea
21. Layia carnosa 
	beach layia
22. Lewisia cotyledon var. heckneri
	Heckner's lewisia
23. Lilium occidentale 
	western lily
24. Lupinus constancei
	The Lassics lupine
25. Lupinus elmeri South
	Fork Mtn. lupine
26. Monardella villosa ssp. globosa
	robust monardella
27. Oenothera wolfii
	Wolf's evening-primrose
28. Rorippa columbiae Columbia
	yellow cress
29. Sidalcea malachroides 
	maple-leaved checkerbloom
30. Sidalcea malviflora ssp. patula
	Siskiyou checkerbloom
31. Sidalcea oregana ssp. eximia coast
32. Silene marmorensis Marble
	Mountain campion
33. Thermopsis robusta 
	robust false lupine
34. Thlaspi californicum Kneeland
	Prairie pennycress
35. Tracyina rostrata 
	beaked tracyina


1. Astragalus umbraticus Bald
	Mountain milk-vetch
2. Boschniakia hookeri
	small groundcone
3. Calamagrostis crassiglumis
	Thurber's reed grass
4. Carex arcta northern
	clustered sedge
5. Carex leptalea flaccid sedge
6. Carex lyngbyei 
	Lyngbye's sedge
7. Carex praticola meadow sedge
8. Carex viridula var. viridula
	green sedge
9. Castilleja affinis ssp. litoralis
	Oregon coast Indian paintbrush
10. Calamagrostis bolanderi
	Bolander's reed grass
11. Empetrum nigrum ssp.
	black crowberry
12. Erythronium revolutum
	coast fawn lily
13. Glyceria grandis
	American manna grass
14. Hesperevax sparsiflora var.
	short-leaved evax
15. Juncus supiniformis hair-
	leaved rush
16. Lathyrus japonicus sand pea
17. Lathyrus palustris 
	marsh pea
18. Lycopodiella inundata bog
19. Lycopodium clavatum
20. Microseris borealis
	northern microseris
21. Mitella caulescens
	leafy-stemmed mitrewort
22. Monotropa uniflora Indian-pipe
23. Montia howellii 
	Howell's montia
24. Puccinellia pumila dwarf
	alkali grass
25. Romanzoffia tracyi
	Tracy's romanzoffia
26. Sanguisorba officinalis
	great burnet
27. Scirpus subterminalis
	water bulrush
28. Sedum divergens
	Cascade stonecrop
29. Senecio bolanderi var. bolanderi
	seacoast ragwort
30. Spergularia canadensis var.
	occidentalis western sand-spurrey
31. Viburnum ellipticum 
	oval-leaved viburnum
32. Viola palustris
	marsh violet


1. Carex inops ssp. inops 
	long-stoloned sedge
2. Erigeron biolettii 
	streamside daisy
3. Lewisia cotyledon var. howellii
	Howell's lewisia
4. Tiarella trifoliata var. trifoliata
	trifoliate laceflower


1. Allium hoffmanii 
	Beegum onion
2. Allium siskiyouense
	Siskiyou onion
3. Angelica lucida 
4. Antennaria suffrutescens 
	evergreen everlasting
5. Arabis rigidissima var. Rigidissima
	Trinity Mountains rock cress
6. Arctostaphylos hispidula
	Howell's manzanita
7. Arnica cernua 
	serpentine arnica
8. Arnica spathulata 
	Klamath arnica
9. Astragalus rattanii var. rattanii
	Rattan's milk-vetch
10. Calamagrostis foliosa
	leafy reed grass
11. Carex buxbaumii
	Buxbaum's sedge
12. Carex geyeri 
	Geyer's sedge
13. Clarkia gracilis ssp. tracyi
	Tracy's clarkia
14. Collomia tracyi Tracy's collomia
15. Cypripedium californicum
	California lady's-slipper
16. Cypripedium fasciculatum
	clustered lady's-slipper
17. Cypripedium montanum
	mountain lady's-slipper
18. Dicentra formosa ssp. oregana
	Oregon bleeding heart
19. Draba howellii 
	Howell's draba
20. Eleocharis parvula
	small spikerush
21. Epilobium septentrionale
	Humboldt County fuchsia
22. Erigeron decumbens var. robustior
	robust daisy
23. Erigeron petrophilus var.
	viscidulus Klamath daisy
24. Eriogonum umbellatum var.
	bahiiforme bay buckwheat
25. Erythronium citrinum var. citrinum
	lemon-colored fawn lily
26. Fritillaria purdyi 
	Purdy's fritillaria
27. Gentiana plurisetosa
	Klamath gentian
28. Gilia sinistra ssp. pinnatisecta
	pinnate-leaved gilia
29. Glehnia littoralis ssp. leiocarpa
	American glehnia
30. Hemizonia congesta ssp. tracyi
	Tracy's tarplant
31. Horkelia sericata
	Howell's horkelia
32. Iliamna latibracteata
	California globe mallow
33. Iris tenax ssp. Klamathensis
	Orleans iris
34. Lathyrus glandulosus sticky pea
35. Lilium bolanderi 
	Bolander's lily
36. Lilium kelloggii 
	Kellogg's lily
37. Lilium pardalinum ssp. vollmeri
	Vollmer's lily
38. Lilium rubescens 
	redwood lily
39. Lilium washingtonianum ssp.
	purple-flowered Washington lily
40. Linanthus acicularis
	bristly linanthus
41. Linanthus latisectus
	broad-lobed linanthus
42. Listera cordata
	art-leaved twayblade
43. Lomatium tracyi 
	Tracy's lomatium
44. Lotus yollabolliensis 
	Yolla Bolly Mtns. 
	bird's-foot trefoil
45. Lupinus lapidicola
	Mt. Eddy lupine
46. Lupinus tracyi 
	Tracy's lupine
47. Lycopus uniflorus
	northern bugleweed
48. Melica spectabilis
	purple onion grass
49. Moneses uniflora
50. Orthocarpus cuspidatus ssp.
	Siskiyou Mountains 
51. Oxalis suksdorfii Suksdorf's
52. Piperia candida
	white-flowered rein orchid
53. Piperia michaelii
	Michael's rein orchid
54. pityopus californicus
	California pinefoot
55. Latanthera stricta
	slender bog-orchid
56. Pleuropogon refractus
	nodding semaphore grass
57. Ribes laxiflorum
	trailing black currant
58. Ribes marshallii
	Marshall's gooseberry
59. Ribes roezlii var. amictum
	hoary gooseberry
60. Sanicula tracyi Tracy's sanicle
61. Sanicula peckiana 
	Peck's sanicle
62. Sedum laxum ssp. Flavidum
	pale yellow stonecrop
63. Sedum laxum ssp. heckneri
	Heckner's stonecrop
64. Senecio macounii 
	Siskiyou Mountains ragwort
65. Stellaria littoralis 
	beach starwort
66. Stellaria obtusa 
	obtuse starwort
67. Tauschia glauca 
	glaucous tauschia
68. Thermopsis gracilis var. gracilis
	slender false lupine
69. Trifolium howellii 
	Howell's clover
70. Veratrum insolitum
	Siskiyou false-hellebore
71. Wyethia longicaulis
	Humboldt County wyethia
North Coast Chapter CNPS    8-19-2000